- What is my age:
Be it a hotel in the city or one near a highway, the incident on Sunday where a brothel was busted at Ambika guest house in Gomtipur and the recent prostitution racket busted in the Skyway hotel in Sola reveals how flesh trade is flourishing in city hotels. City-based pimps use hotels for arranging their customers' stay for a few hours. What's more, all this is carried out with the help of police officials. Usually, the managers or owners of the hotel are required to pay around Rs10, to Rs25, to the police station where prostitutes in ahmedabad hotels are situated if they want to continue allowing the pimps to use the hotel by their clients. For instance, a client using a hotel room at SG Highway area will have to pay more than a couple using a hotel room in Naroda, Bapunagar, Lal Darwaja or Kalupur area.
CSW: commercial sex workers. By comparing these prostitutes in ahmedabad scenarios, the relative decrease in HIV incidence and prevalence and the of HIV infections averted by the intervention amongst CSWs and their clients can be estimated. In addition, data from the Jyoti Sangh monthly monitoring reports were also used to estimate the of clients per CSW per month.
Total provider costs were collected retrospectively. Two surveys were performed among CSWs in and A dynamic mathematical model was used with survey and intervention-specific data from Ahmedabad to estimate the HIV impact of the Jyoti Sangh project for the 51 months between the two CSW surveys.
There were no data collected from clients, and so behavioural data for the clients were obtained from national surveys of paying clients of CSWs undertaken in by NACO [ 11 ].
GJ: Prof. Records of peer educator and other volunteer s, expenditures on medical and non-medical supplies as well as daily transport, building operating and maintenance costs including communications were obtained from project monitoring documentation and s. In Latin Hypercube Sampling, probability distribution functions are defined for each parameter and the uncertainty intervals for each parameter are split into N strips of equal probability, where N is the of runs undertaken in the uncertainty analysis.
The HIV epidemic in India is no longer negligible, with an estimated 5. Costs were classified as recurrent personnel, supplies, transport, building maintenance or capital training, start-up costs, buildings, vehicles and by category of programme input. Buildings used by the project were identified through interviews with staff and project records. For that reason, and in the absence of earlier start-up data, the prostitutes in ahmedabad of the survey prostitutes in ahmedabad estimated from project s and included as a start-up cost for the project.
The cost per HIV-infection averted was estimated. In addition, from January to Decemberon average 2, CSWs were reached per month and prostitutes in ahmedabad people were treated for STDs by the free clinic range: 5 to per month. The facilitation of HIV transmission by the presence of STIs in a sexual relationship [ 89 ] and the initial high viraemia stage of HIV [ 10 ] are incorporated into the model.
The model was parameterised with behavioural data from the two surveys undertaken amongst CSWs by Jyoti Sangh, intervention-specific output data and data from the scientific literature. In the survey, a convenient sample of CSWs was recruited from the — Prostitutes in ahmedabad with whom Jyoti Sangh had rapport through outreach workers and peer educators.
Using snowballing methods, Jyoti Sangh estimated that there are 4, range 3,—4, CSWs in Ahmedabad, and that sincethe of CSWs reached by them has increased from to over 3, in The surveys assessed the laboratory prevalence of Chlamydia trachomtisNeisseria gonorrhoeasyphilis and Trichomonas vaginalisand HIV, along with their behavioural correlates, such as condom usage and the of clients per day. However, it was hoped that the effect of HSV-2 on HIV transmission was incorporated in a crude way within the HIV transmission probability at baseline through the uncertainty that was attached to this model parameter.
Because of this, the model's projections of the clients' STI and HIV prevalence amongst clients were not included as part of the prostitutes in ahmedabad regime, and so were not restricted by any observed data. However, in the city of Ahmedabad, the HIV prevalence in amongst ante-natal clinic attendees was 0. If it was not produced from a population sample, then the range is the proposed uncertainty in the parameter used for the model uncertainty analysis, and if it was thought that one value was more likely then a triangle distribution was used.
Jyoti Sangh has contact with CSWs from different areas of the city that work on the street and in other settings such as brothels and beauty parlours. A simple linear regression analysis was performed on the different model fits to explore if there were any associations between the input parameters and different outputs SPSS To take into the variability in the uncertainty of different inputs, standardised regression prostitutes in ahmedabad were used to measure the strength of association, and p-values were given by t-tests.
Personnel records and staff interviews were used to identify staff and volunteers working on the project. Compared to the survey, the survey demonstrated a ificant decrease in the prevalence of treatable STIs and a stabilisation of the HIV prevalence; this was reflected in a ificant decrease in the reported of sexual partners and a prostitutes in ahmedabad increase in consistent condom use [ 6 ]. Although the project began before our evaluation period, interviews with staff indicated that the baseline survey was key to recruiting CSWs and peer educators to the project.
Financial and economic costs of the intervention were estimated for the period between the two surveys.
RPR: Rapid plasma regain. In Gujarat the prevalence is generally much lower 0. One of these is the CSW prevention project run by Jyoti Sangh, a non-governmental organisation that promotes the welfare and empowerment of women [ 4 ]. Using behavioural and epidemiological data, the model divides the CSWs into sub-groups according to their level of condom use 'None of the time', 'Some of the time' and 'All of the time' and STI and HIV infection status.
For this epidemiological setting, the model was used to prostitutes in ahmedabad how changes in sexual behaviour and condom use and improvements in STI treatment, associated with being in contact with the intervention, may have reduced HIV and STI transmission.
Staff training is a core activity of Jyoti Sangh. Ahmedabad is an industrial city in Gujarat, India. Currently there are 26 operational HIV prevention projects among different sections of the society. It was assumed prostitutes in ahmedabad this effect remained constant over the duration of the evaluation.
The monitoring reports gave monthly estimates for the average of sexual intercourses each CSW had per day for May to December By assuming one coital act per client, this data suggested that each CSW had on average range: and clients per month over this period. The model did not simulate the transmission of Herpes Simplex Virus-2 HSV-2 because of a lack of epidemiological data. The model equations are included in Appendix 2 [See Additional file 2 ].
For details, see Appendix 3 [see Additional file 3 ].
Police busts prostitution racket in ahmedabad, accused arrested
Because monitoring reports were not collected beforeand because only categorical data was collected in the behavioural surveys proportion of CSWs that had less than 2, between 2 and 5 and over 5 clients per daythe client frequency for CSWs not reached by the intervention had to be estimated in other ways. This study aims to evaluate the Jyoti Sangh HIV intervention programme by using mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness analysis with prostitutes in ahmedabad epidemiological, behavioural and intervention data.
Monthly reports for earlier years are no longer available. Data from these surveys were used to parameterise and fit a mathematical model to estimate the impact of the intervention prostitutes in ahmedabad the 51 months between the mid-points of the two survey periods — the beginning of September to the end of November Mean ages of both surveys were similar Cost data was also collected over this period so that the cost-effectiveness of the intervention could be estimated.
Financial and economic costs of the intervention were estimated from the provider's perspective for the same time period. In the survey, CSWs were sampled from a sampling frame of out of who expressed their willingness to participate in the study.
Four nabbed for running prostitution racket in ahmedabad
prostitutes in ahmedabad Established mathematical techniques [ 7 ] are used to estimate how HIV and a generic STI spread within the different CSW sub-groups and their clients over time with or without the intervention programme. Data regarding condom use and other sexual behaviour were obtained through self-reporting from the two intervention surveys. Additional transportation and communication expenses met by project staff were identified from interviews with personnel. STD: sexually transmitted disease. Because the model only simulates the transmission of one generic STI it was decided that it would be fit to the overall prevalence of STIs amongst CSWs in and Prostitutes in ahmedabad this simplifies the nature of STI transmission, it was done to mimic the overall effect of treatable STIs on HIV transmission before and after the intervention.
This study demonstrated that targeted CSW interventions in India can be cost-effective, and highlights the importance of replicating this effort in other similar settings. Over the 51 months between these surveys, Jyoti Sangh distributed over 5. For training activities based in Gujarat, costs were calculated based on the of participants, the of days attended and the estimated cost per person day for an AMCACS training workshop.
Over 51 months, projections suggest that the intervention averted and 5, HIV cases among the CSWs and their clients, respectively. These point estimates were then used to calibrate the prostitutes in ahmedabad data from the survey, and so produce estimates for the average client frequency per CSW not reached by the intervention — range: — clients per month. A deterministic mathematical model, Sex Work Gujarat 1. This was estimated by multiplying the average of CSWs reached each month from prostitutes in ahmedabad monthly reports by the overall prevalence of curable STIs from the These high and low estimates for each month were then averaged to give bounds for the proportion of CSWs reached using STD services per month.
For each run, an interval is randomly chosen without replacement from each parameter uncertainty range, and a parameter value is randomly chosen from within the interval [ 25 ]. This was used for the CSWs reached by the intervention. This was done by using the monitoring data from — to calibrate the distribution data from the intervention survey, so replacing the categorical ranges of clients per day with point estimates. Although the project does not own any vehicles, it was found that prostitutes in ahmedabad staff use their own vehicles.
This is particularly concerning since Ahmedabad is the seventh largest city in India with a population of over 4. The transmission probabilities for HIV [ 12 - 14 ] and the generic STD included in the model [ 1315 - 20 ], STD cofactor effects per sex act [ 89 ], multiplicative factor during high infectivity phase [ 2122 ] and proportion of time condom used that provides protection [ 2324 ] were obtained from the literature. STI: sexually transmitted infection. For other training activities, costs were obtained from expenditure records and interviews with staff. Prevalence of different sexually transmitted infections and HIV among CSWs in two cross-sectional surveys in and .
There were no HIV or STI epidemiological data for the clients as they were notoriously difficult to collect data from.
This was done to assess the impact of parameter uncertainty upon the model impact estimates. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling was employed in which CSWs were stratified according to their work setting and sampling was carried out according to strata which represent the real proportion of different types of CSW in the population Table A1 [ 4 ]. Gaurang Jani. If no information prostitutes in ahmedabad on which value was more likely, then a non-informative uniform distribution was used.